In 1914, a dozen Socialists, headed by Bouck White, were beaten and thrown out of Calvary Baptist Church in New York City when White tried to speak at Sunday's service. This was the church which John D. Rockefeller attended. Ushers seized and dragged White up the aisle. The whole congregation was on its feet and cries of "let him talk, shame, shame," and "put him out, this is the house of God," echoed all over the church. A half-dozen fist fights started immediately. Emmanuel Lopez, a Portuguese, who had not entered the church, was surrounded by police on the sidewalk and beaten with fists and billy clubs until several teeth were knocked out. One stranger was beaten by ushers and police in the vestibule until he stood helpless, covered with blood. White and 11 others were arrested and charged with interfering with a religious service.